Voodoo....Origins and Basic Principles
Research compiled by Angela L MSSPI
Although Voodoo is often associated with Satanism, Satan is purely an Abrahamic belief and has not been incorporated in Voodoo tradition. Some Mississippi Delta blues and folksongs make references to Voodoo and to Satan. Robert Johnson sang of "hot foot powder sprinkled all round my door" and Muddy Waters referenced "the gypsy woman", "seventh son", and the "mojo hand". What is being expressed in these songs is social pain such as from racism and hardships which are couched in Christian terms and blamed on the devil. Those who practice voodoo do not worship or invoke the blessings of a devil.
By far the most commonly held misconception about the origins and cosmological structure of African Vodoun is the mistaken notion that it arrived in the New World as a fragmented hodgepodge of unintelligble beliefs, until it incorporated Western and indigenous religious practices into its body corpus in order to legitimize and offer it structural integrity.
In truth, Vodoun is a 10,000 year old tradition which pre dates Christianity, and is replete with all the elements that would define it as a "religion" proper. With Ancestor veneration, and service to the Nature gods at its core, it is arguably the oldest religion in Africa. "Voodoo" was also secretly practiced amongst the slaves of the South long before the influx of Haitiain immigrants to Lousiana. Though highly adaptable to wherever African descendants migrated or were taken and enslaved, the Vodoun religion incorporates the flavor of its local surroundings largely for its survival.
This was especially the case during the height of the religious persecution of the African during slavery and colonialism in Africa. Thus, one might find in some denominations of Vodoun, superficial aspects of Western religion, liturgy and indigenous practices incorporated into its local practices.
An example of this in the New World, is the use of Catholic Saints or the use of communion by some shrines/denominations in the Vodou. Vodoun is centered on Ancestral veneration, guided by the direct intervention of Nature deities whom have come directly to them to offer guidance, spiritual evolvement, and blessings since the beginning of time. These "demigods" and ancient blood ancestors are experienced directly through divination and various forms of trance possession (not channeling!). The knowledge gained and the spiritual lessons acquired are then passed down through the blood and community through the offspring of the African and the diaspora. Faith, experiential belief, ritual, worship and other components are involved in the development of ones spiritual character in the Vodoun.
Voodoo is a religious tradition originating in West Africa, which became prominent in the New World due to the importation of African slaves. West African Vodun is the original form of the religion; Haitian Vodou and Louisiana Voodoo are its descendants in the New World.
Vodou (Anglicized: Voodoo) is a name attributed to a New World syncretistic religion, or family of religions, based on the faiths of the Fon, Ewe, and related peoples of West Africa (see West African Vodun), of the Kongo people of Central Africa (see Lemba), and of Christianity. It is found in areas of the African diaspora, especially Haiti, Dominican Republic, Cuba, and Brazil. . See Louisiana Voodoo for the Afro-creole tradition of New Orleans, Santería and Arará for the forms local to Cuba, and Candomblé and Umbanda for Brazil.
New Orleans Voodoo was based in animism (nature belief) from Africa and was modified in Haiti to include a belief in zombies and the spirit world, including demons and ghosts. Additionally, it contained elements of Roman Catholicism, to make it more acceptable to local authorities. As an example of the fear that some had for Voodoo, in 1782 during the Spanish regime, Governor Galvez forbade the import of slaves from Martinique in the Caribbean to New Orleans because the slaves' belief in Voodoo made them too dangerous.
The way it works is through the energies and intelligence which are directed and manifested of ourselves and our universe.
The most basic concepts of Voodoo.
Practicioners of Voodoo believe that there is one God, Bondye. This God is very similar to the God of Islam, Judaism and Christianity.
There are three important categories of other spiritual beings:
lwa. These are the various spirits of family members; the spirits of the major forces of the universe--good, evil, reproduction, health, all aspects of daily life. lwa interact with the people of earth. They "mount" people now and again during religious ceremonies and they give messages, and even cause various good and bad things to happen to people.
The twins. A curious and rather mysterious set of forces of contradictories: good and evil, happy and sad etc. If honored now and again in religious services they will tend to help you have the better side of life.
The dead. Mainly the souls of one's own family members who have died but have not yet been "reclaimed" by the family. Ignored family dead are dangerous. Honored and cared for family dead are helpful.
The central and key aspect of Voodoo is healing people from illness.
Such healing activities probably constitute 60% of all Voodoo activity. Healers heal with herbs, faith healing (with the help of lwa and other spirits) and, today, even with western medicine!
The priesthood of Voodoo contains both men (houngan) and women (mambo). Their functions are:
perform religious ceremonies to call or pacify the spirits.
to hold initiations for new priests(tesses) (kanzo service and taking the ason).
Telling the future and reading dreams.
casting spells and creating protections.
creating potions for various purposes. (From love spells to death spells.)
For any of these they may receive fees. But, they may not too. This differs from one houngan and mambo to another. (Note his is similar to fees paid to rabbis, mullahs, priests and ministers.)
Another central feature of Voodoo is the "service," the religious rites of the religion.
A master of ceremonies (La Place) is often present.
A hounganikon directs the music and motion.
Hounsi (women only) are serving ladies, usually dressed in white.
Those in attendance are nearly all participants and most can be "mounted" by lwa. In most services the lwa "mount" people. That is, they come and take over a person's body for a time. When the lwa come the person is gone. (It's not clear where the person goes.) The body is the body of the person, but it is really the lwa. If a male lwa mounts a female person, he is referred to as "he," not she, during the mounting.
Nearly every Voodoo service has animal sacrifice. By killing the animal one releases life. The lwa are exhausted by the taxing task of running the universe. Thus they can receive this life sacrificed to them and are re-juvenated. They are usually quite happy about this.
There are two primary sorts of Voodoo.
Rada. This is a family spirit Voodoo and the Voodoo of the relatively peaceful and happy lwa.
Petro. (In some areas called Congo.) This is a black magic Voodoo and the Voodoo of angry, mean and nasty lwa. Dangerous things happen in Petro including death curses, the making of zombi and wild sexual orgies SPECIAL NOTE By virtually all scholarly estimates one can find, Rada accounts for about 95% of Voodoo, if not more. Thus the spectacular tales of black magic, while very real, are extremely limited. Petro is not the typical Voodoo, but it does exist.
The analysis of humans. Humans have two spirits and a body.
ti-bon-ange (little good angel). This is similar to the conscience in the Western understanding of people.
gros-bon-ange (big good angel). This is similar to the soul in Western theories of person, except the soul is much more separate from the person than is a western soul. For example, when the person goes before God for judgment it is the gros-bon-ange which presents "the person" to God and makes the person's case.
Key terms in Voodoo
govi--a small earthen bottle into which the gros-bon-ange of dead ancestors can "rescued." After a person dies the gros-bon-ange goes to the underwater place. A year and a day after he or she goes their the relatives can recall the gros-bon-ange. Unfortunately this is a very expensive service, requiring a significant animal sacrifice, often an ox. Thus it is often considerable time before the service can be done. If too much time passes the ancestor may get a bit restless and cause trouble-- illness etc.
serviteurs--serious practitioners of Voodoo.
lave tet--(washing of the head) an initiation ceremony held for serviteurs after they have been mounted for the first time.
kanzo--the initiation ceremonies for those moving into a very serious level of Voodoo practice.
taking of the ason--the final initiation into being a houngan or mambo. NOTE: Both kanzo and the taking of the ason are very secret services. However, in Alfred Metraux's book (VOODOO IN HAITI), through observation and talking with people who were not too careful about the secrecy of kanzo, he has pieced together a detailed account of the ceremony.
peristyle--the Voodoo temple. A tiny tiny place.
poto mitan--the center pole in a Voodoo peristyle. It represents the center of the universe and all dancing revolves around the poto mitan.
Les Invisibles--all spirits.
Les Mysteries-- the lwa themselves.
sacred knowledge. Also called "konesans."
Some of the central lwa in the Voodoo pantheon.
Legba. An old man who is the gatekeeper between the two worlds, world of earth and the world of the Invisibles. He is the origin of life. The sun is one of his symbols, but he is also the source of regeneration and uses the symbol of the phallus. Legba Ati-bon is the first Spirit called at all ceremonies. He opens and closes the door to success and opportunity. He is the energy that always talks to us as that "other" voice in our head ...when it comes to making choices. He plays the "devil's advocate". Then he laughs at us when we make bad choices in our life. He is extremely quick acting in nature...like quicksilver (which is one of his elements).He stands at the "Crossroads," he is a master linguist, a trickster. He can appear as a very old and crippled man, but appearances are deceiving. He is powerful: He allows for the interaction between the physical world and the metaphysical world, hence the crossroads.
Kalfu (crossroads) is the Petro counterpart to Legba. He is the spirit of the night, the origins of darkness. The moon is his symbol. He can be placated, but is a dangerous lwa.
(left Baron Samedi Symbol)
Dumballah. The father figure. He is the good snake. The source of peace and tranquillity. The egg is offered to him when he comes to mount a person. He is much loved and sought after. His wife Aida-wedo attends him.
Ogoun. The warrior. Today, too, the force of politics. Violent.
Erzulie. Erzulie Dantor is motherly love The earth mother. Spirit of the goddess of love. The muse of beauty. (Strongly identified with the Virgin Mary.) Her appearance (when she mounts someone) is one of cleansing, dressing, delicate foods daintily eaten. She can read the future in dreams...fiercely loyal to those who worship her. Very protective of the children, and single mothers. A much loved lwa.
Voodoo's relationship to Christianity.
The Catholic experience.
Under the French slaves were forbidden from practicing Voodoo. Nonetheless Voodoo survived. The colonists did allow occasional dances on the weekends. These dances were actually Voodoo services!
After the liberation of 1804 all white people were kicked out of Haiti and many were killed. This included Roman Catholic priests. Thus in 1804 the Vatican broke with Haiti and did not establish relations with her again until 1860.
During this 56 year period houngans and mambos built up the public religion of Haiti, Voodoo, in a weird amalgamation of African spirit religion and Catholicism. Virtually all lwa became associated with Catholic saints (Dumballah the snake lwa is St. Patrick; Erzulie, the earth mother is the Virgin Mary). The most important consequence of this is that Haitians see nothing odd at all with practicing Voodoo and Catholicism side by side and are often very devout about each of them.
From time to time from 1860 until the late 1940s the Catholic Church waged campaigns against Voodoo. They never came to anything.
In 1941-42 some elements of the Catholic Church waged an all out physical, holy war against Voodoo. They burned peristyle, Voodoo shrines, beat (some say even killed) houngans and mambo, demanded their ostracism from society and shot things up. But, they lost. Voodoo went under-ground to some extent, but it grew in popularity, in large measure because of the oppression.
By the early 1950s the Catholic hierarchy halted this war, got rid of these priest warriors and made their peace with Voodoo. Voodoo drums and melodies were incorporated into Catholic church services. The Catholics took the position, if you can't defeat them, co-opt them. Relative peace has held between the Catholics and serviteurs ever since.
Until the 1970s Haiti was nearly 100% Catholic. In the 1970s evangelical Protestantism came to Haiti. After Reagan came to power evangelization mushroomed.
Evangelical Protestants are bitter enemies of Voodoo and denounce it all the time as devil worship. Many of these people claim that Haiti's misery is because she is being punished by God for the sins of her Voodoo serviteurs.
Protestantism has come to Haiti as a serious business. Evangelical Protestants groups own 7 of Haiti's 11 radio stations and have made significant gains in conversions. Today most observers believe that at least 15% of the Christians in Haiti are Protestant evangelicals.
But there is also a darker side to some Voodoo Practices.
(Very Cruel & Deadliest of all)
Voodoo Witchcraft comes from the African continent & is extremely lethal. In the last few years it has spread into other parts of the world & is being mixed with other forms of Black magic to harm and kill people.
The clothes, hair, nails and picture are used to make a doll that resembles the victim; the heart area of the doll is kept open for the final ritual. A ritual is performed and a heart is pulled out from a live animals body while it is vibrating and placed into the heart area of the doll, at this point the doll is infused with life connecting the doll with the victim with an invisible psychic chord. Once the doll and the victim are connected, 2-3 inch needles are pushed in the doll at specific acupuncture points to break the energy system of the victim. As the pins are pushed into the doll the victim feels as if a needle is being pierced into his body. The victim can be sitting thousands of miles away and will experience the attacks instantaneously. If the victim was made to eat or drink food and/or water that consists of "Masaan" (Ash of the Dead) infused with negatively charged energy by the black magician, the effects are life threatening and gives unlimited control over the victims Mind & Body. The prime focus of the black magician is to destroy the immune system of their victim. In case of a man: head & temple area, thumbs & big toes are targeted to break the immune system. In case of women, breasts and private parts are attacked to terrorize & harm the victim. The individual can be killed using this technique in as little as 28 days (one Moon cycle). If the individual is physically, mentally, emotionally & spiritually strong it becomes very difficult for the attacker to kill the victim within a specific time period and the attacks can continue for years until the victim or the black magician dies. At present many forms of black magic are being used all over the world, the problem is rising at a horrifying rate and the governments are not interested in looking into the problem and making laws to punish the Black Magicians. In the past few years hushed up research has been done at the Stony Brook Medical College, New York. USA and they have concluded that Voodoo witchcraft can kill people. 90% of Vietnam is dominated by the practice of black magic; Parts of Asia including India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia are the areas where the science of black magic is spreading like wild fire. In the west: America, Mexico & parts of South America, England, Eastern Europe & Africa are some of the areas where Black Magic & Voodoo witchcraft is on the rise. Here are some of the effects one can experience on the physical level if one has become a victim of Voodoo Witchcraft: In Voodoo the effects are not gradual but start instantly and the intensity of these attacks increase to higher levels depending upon the weakness of the individual.
Waking up with a jerk and in fear within moments one falls into the first stage of sleep. A Dark or Grey smoke is seen in front of the eyes when awake. One's complexion turns dark & as the time passes it turns to darker shades of black. Stinging pains are felt in different parts of the body. Shooting stinging pain in the tongue and one wakes up with extreme pain with a blister on the tongue. Burning of palms as if they have been put on fire Lips and other body parts get swollen in the spur of the moment for no medical reasons. Constant Fatigue/ Low Energy Mood Swings & extremely negative thinking that can lead to suicides. Jerking/Twitching of muscles or body parts, feeling of ants crawling on the body or body parts vibrate. Heaviness/Tightness in the whole body or certain body parts. In serious cases where spirits have taken control of the house where the individual is residing: one can experience dripping plasma from the walls, unusual activity of the insects & other wierd phenomenon that is unexplainable & unrealistic. Some of the unusual activity is only visible to the victims. Whether it is Black Magic or Voodoo witchcraft the effects are intensified on and around the Full Moon Nights and the Dark Moon nights. As the attacks continue the victim is torn down on multiple levels; gets bed ridden and eventually dies of no apparent medical reason. The doctor's cannot help him because the symptoms misguide the doctors into giving the individual stronger treatments with every passing day and one day the body gives-up. If any of the above symptoms match your situation, you should immediately get professional help. There are some specific mantras in the Rig Vedas that can start protecting you immediately. Here are some precautions that you can take from becoming a victim
Do not eat or drink any item from anyone unless the person shares that food item with you. Sweets/Desserts that are filled with "Ash of the Dead" and charged with negative mantra are used to create an opening in your auric shield and that opening is used as a channel to control your body & mind. Black Magic is done using your picture, clothes, hair, nails, blood, saliva, skin tissue & used menstrual pads. Women get affected with black magic more easily than men, in women the effects can be observed on the surface, while in men, it works as an undercurrent and is not visible. Black magic can also be done by touching your body or looking straight into your eyes. Anything that carries an aura can be charged with negative energies to create an opening in the auric field of the victim. Examples: Clothing, jewelry, piece of paper, stuffed animals or stuffed dolls e.t.c Black magic can also be done using your name and your mother's name hence do not give sensitive information to everyone. There is nothing irrational about black magic, as it is an ancient science and can be mastered to hurt or heal people. Hence follow the rule of Trusting in God but staying on Guard .
Initial stages of possible Black Magic or Spirit Activity
Your sleep is disturbed
Fatigue and lack of energy to live day-to-day life
You have Fear
Disinterest in life
You are irritated for no reason
You get angry for no reason
Your professional career suffers
Dryness of mouth at night
Obesity in some cases
Sudden Chills and Goose Bumps
Tightness around body parts
You start forgetting things in the spur of the moment and experience memory loss
Advance Stages of Black Magic/Spirit Activity
You dream of dead bodies and horrible looking people who want to kill you in your dream
You dream of snakes & dirty places
Waking up suddenly in fear with shortness of breath
Dreaming of falling from Heights Dreaming of Snakes, Scorpions & Spiders
You see black dots or smoke flying all over
The stomach bloats like a pregnant women's belly and the area right above the navel tightens up & when touched feels like a golf ball is in there Extreme hunger in case entities have taken charge of your body
Your complexion darkens Itching, burning and stinging pains in different parts of the body
Final Stages of Spirit Possession/Black Magic with very little recovery time left
Cancer of blood or other body parts
Shrinking and malfunctioning of kidneys
Excessive alcohol consumption resulting in liver damage Substance Abuse
Heart Attacks resulting in sudden death
Medicines do not work baffling the medical practioner: resulting in doctors using stronger treatments
Suicidal attempts or thoughts of self destruction
Additional symptoms pertaining to women only, Bruise marks around thighs & vagina ,Rape in dreams with an orgasm that is real . Irritation in the vagina with Leukorrhea ,Complete stoppage of monthly periods or irregular periods, unable to conceive due to psychic blocks so as the woman stays barren all her life, blockages in fallopian tubes and/or unable to hold the pregnancy resulting in miscarriage .
Additional symptoms pertaining to Spiritual People
Your interest in the divine consciousness takes a nose dive, you lose interest in your prayers and meditations.
Body shakes like a pemdulum when one tries to meditate or pray one gets attracted towards unholy desires like homosexuality, Non-vegetarian food, sex & other vices Your kundalini shakti becomes inactive in case your kundalini was functioning earlier.
In serious cases where demons, devils or evil entities have taken possession of the individual's body, the individual can commit suicide or become a killer. Sudden violent behavior is quite visible in these individuals.
There are many other symptoms and it all depends upon the type of black magic that is being used.
The spirit activity increases 2-3 days before the Dark moon nights and the full moon nights. If you are a victim your condition will worsen around these periods. It will help you keep a log of the events around these periods. Please check the dates for the Full Moon Nights and the Dark Moon Nights that are listed at the end of this page
What are Voodoo dolls?
Voodoo dolls are generally a tool of New Orleans style Voodoo. Those who practice Santaria and Hatian Voudu do not use Voodoo dolls.
Another use of dolls in authentic Vodou practice is the incorporation of plastic doll babies in altars and objects used to represent or honor the spirits, or in pwen, which recalls the aforementioned use of bocio and nkisi figures in Africa.
A Voodoo doll is a representation of it's target. It can be made from any material the Voodoo doll's maker has access to, so there is great variety in the appearance of Voodoo dolls. Many have a very primitive appearance (like rag dolls), while some can be quite elaborate and beautiful! Fertility dolls tend to have an exagerated female shape and often appear pregnant.
Since a Voodoo doll is used to focus your energy and desires on a target, practitioners often place items associated with their target in or on their doll. Many Voodoo dolls come with small bags for this purpose. Pins can also be quite helpful in focusing on a particular part of a target's body, but are not needed to make your Voodoo doll work.
How To Make A Voodoo Doll
New Orleans Voodoo Doll Basic Materials: 2 sticks, Spanish moss, feathers, scrap material ( Cloth ) in power colors, brown natural twine , imagination and intent.
yellow - success
white - positive
red - power
purple - spirituality
green - money
blue - love
black - repelling negative energy
Make your doll in one of the 7 Power Colors. You pick the color for what you need. You make a cross with the two sticks. Apple Wood (natural not processed ) works best as this is believed by many to be the tree of life. Once you have made the cross fasten it together and tie it tight with twine. Now take the spanish moss and build the doll a body. Tie the moss to the sticks with your twine. Now you can get as elabrate as you want to. Make your doll clothes in the power color you need. You can make your doll a head out of cloth and moss or buy you one already made. Its really best to make it yourself for it to have the most power. If you have fingernail clippings or hair of a loved one or enemy they go sewed up in the head of the doll. You can decorate your doll and now comes the fun part. If you made it for one of the power colors to bring you what that color is supposed to bring you keep the doll close to you and burn a candle near it at night. Especially on the full of the moon.
White Voodoo or Arada, is the application of ritual that does no harm to third parties. Red Voodoo, or Petro, is the opposite.
Let us only look now to white Voodoo, the benefits of which are undisputed. In Voodoo there is the understanding of the use of candles, oils, plants and potions. These secrets are simple to develop in our everyday lives. For example, certain plants have certain attributes, a beautiful plant will be gentle and bring harmony -- a thorny plant will bring agressivity and tension. Some plants may compliment each other and yet other plants may be like enemies and bring discord. It must also be remembered that many plants have associations with the planets. We all know that the cypress tree has affinity with Saturn, for example.
By mastering the knowledge of plants, their uses and ascendan, the powders derived from them can be utilized in Voodoo Rituals or even on their own to produce desired results. In most cases the mixtures of plant powders should be burnt on live charcoal, but in some cases such as MONEY DRAWING POWDER the mixture can be carried hidden about the person or tucked in places around the house. A classic Voodoo mixture is Kyoto Powder; This is made up of, principally, Absinte, Patcholi and Red Sandalwood. Absinte is a plant derived from MARS which can only be combined with others derived from Venus to good effect. It will keep evil spirits at bay and encourage good luck. Patchouli derived from Venus burnt on Wednesday or Friday will attract new business propositions and love and Red Sandalwood draws money harmony. The three mixed together in certain proportions cannot fail to bring good luck!
Dragon Bath, to attract great love, good luck powder.
Kyoto Powder : to provoke events.
Lady Luck Powder: attracts advice through dreams.
Mi-Gagne Powder: to have debts repaid and attract money.
Powder of protection : to protect you during rituals and from accidents.
Invocation powder : to call spirits and attract the paranormal.
Revenge powder : purifies houses and expel evil.
Yo Yo Powder Keep mistresses away from husbands.
Trinity oil : a simple oil to attract material success.
Baron Samedi- Also known as Papa Ghede, he presides over death as well as the libido in traditional Voodoo.
Baron Samedi is thought to have been adopted into the Vodou religion from the Celtic pagan religious beliefs held by some of the Irish indentured servants who worked alongside the African slaves in the sugar plantations of the Caribbean
He is usually depicted with a top hat, black tuxedo, dark glasses, and cotton plugs in the nostrils, as if to resemble a corpse dressed and prepared for burial in the Haitian style. He has a white, frequently skull-like face (or actually has a skull for a face) and speaks in a nasal voice. He is a sexual loa, frequently represented by phallic symbols and is noted for disruption, obscenity, debauchery, and having a particular fondness for tobacco and rum. Additionally, he is the loa of sex and resurrection, and in the latter capacity he is often called upon for healing by those near or approaching death, as it is only Baron who can accept an individual into the realm of the dead
As well as being master of the dead, Baron Samedi is also a giver of life. He can cure any mortal of any disease or wound, if he thinks it is worthwhile. His powers are especially great when it comes to voodoo curses and black magic. Even if somebody has been afflicted by a hex which brings them to the verge of death, they will not die if the Baron refuses to dig their grave. So long as this mighty spirit keeps them out of the ground they are safe. He also ensures all corpses rot in the ground to stop any soul being brought back as a brainless zombie. What he demands in return depends on his mood. Sometimes he is content with his followers wearing black, white or purple clothes or using sacred objects; he may simply ask for a small gift of cigars, rum, black coffee, grilled peanuts or bread. But sometimes the Baron requires a voodoo ceremony to help him cross over into this world.
Marie Laveau The Voodoo Queen
Believed to be born in New Orleans in 1794 and died in New Orleans on June 15th, 1881. A free woman of color as well as a Quadroon (African, Indian, French and Spanish), she became the most famous and powerful Voodoo Queen in the world, so powerful that she acclaimed herself the Pope of Voodoo in the 1830s. She was respected and feared by thousands including the Catholic Church. A devout catholic, going to mass each day, she got permission to hold rituals behind St. Louis Cathedral. Starting out as a hairdresser and later as a selfless nurse, Marie Laveau became the first commercial Voodoo Queen.
In later life, the Voodoo Queen rejected her belief in evil magic and embraced Catholicism. She visited the convicts on death row in the city's jail, bringing them comfort and food. Usually she brought them gumbo; it has been suggested she sometimes laced the gumbo with natural medicinal herbs that soothed the convicts' physical and mental pain. Some speculated that at least once, Marie actually drugged the gumbo with a substance which caused the premature death of a prisoner who had a date with the hangman, sparing the victim the trauma of execution. During the Yellow Fever epidemic of the 1850s which devastated the population of New Orleans, prominent citizens called upon Marie Laveau to help heal the sick and fight the plague.
She had fifteen children by her second husband, one of which (Marie Philomene Laveau Glapion) walked in her footsteps and became almost as powerful as her mother.
Ghost Stories of New Orleans : Parascope
Witchcraft- The History & Mythology by Richard Marshall
Walking the Twighlight Path, The Gothic Book of The Dead ,by Michelle Barenger
Bing Search Voodoo articles & photos
Google Search Voodoo & photos
Andre Pierre, Haitian, born 1916, Ritual jar (govi) for Ezili Freda